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Table 2 Logistic regression analysis describing correlates of HIV-1 virologic failure (viral load ≥400 copies/ml) among first-line antiretroviral experienced adults at a rural HIV clinic in coastal Kenya (N = 232)

From: HIV-1 virologic failure and acquired drug resistance among first-line antiretroviral experienced adults at a rural HIV clinic in coastal Kenya: a cross-sectional study

  Logistic univariable analysis Logistic multivariable analysis (n = 201)
Risk factors Categories Viraemia, n = 57 [%] Crude OR 95% C.I *P-value Adjusted OR 95% C. I *P-value
Gender Male 12/54 [22.2] 1.0      
Female 45/177 [25.3] 1.2 0.6 – 2.4 0.645 - - -
Age group (years) 15.0 – 34.9 31/80 [38.8] 1.0    1.0   
≥ 35.0 26/152 [17.1] 0.3 0.2 – 0.6 <0.001 0.3 0.2 – 0.7 0.002
Marital status Single 8/19 [42.1] 1.0      
Married (monogamous/polygamous) 36/132 [27.3] 0.5 0.2 – 1.4     
Separated/Divorced/Widowed 13/81 [16.1] 0.3 0.1 – 0.8 0.034 - - -
Religion Christian 38/152 [25.0] 1.0      
Muslim 7/41 [17.1] 0.6 0.3 – 1.5     
Others 12/39 [30.8] 1.3 0.6 – 2.9 0.345 - - -
Education status Primary schooling/Less 46/187 [24.6] 1.0      
Secondary/Higher 11/45 [24.4] 1.0 0.5 – 2.1 0.983 - - -
Group distance (km) <10.0 37/148 [25.0] 1.0      
≥ 10.0 20/84 [23.8] 0.9 0.5 – 1.8 0.839 - - -
Starting 1 st line regimen Zidovudine based 33/118 [28.0] 1.0      
Stavudine based 24/114 [21.1] 0.7 0.4 – 1.3 0.221 - - -
Baseline WHO staging I/II 28/131 [21.4] 1.0      
III/IV 28/100 [28.0] 1. 4 0.8 – 2.6 0.246 - - -
Baseline BMI groups (Kg/m 2 ) < 18.5 26/95 [27.4] 1.0      
≥ 18.5 30/136 [22.1] 0.8 0.4 – 1.4 0.356 - - -
Baseline CD4 groups (cells/uL) < 100 25/96 [26.0] 1.0      
≥ 100 30/134 [22.4] 0.8 0.4 – 1.5 0.523 - - -
Duration on ART (months) <12.0 23/81 [28.4] 1.0      
≥ 12.0 34/151 [22.5] 0.7 0.4 - 1.4 0.325 - - -
Drug substitution No 40/168 [23.8] 1.0      
Yes 17/64 [26.6] 1.2 0.6 – 2.2 0.665 - - -
Follow up WHO staging Stage I/II 29/132 [22.0] 1.0      
Stage III/IV 28/100 [28.0] 1.4 0.8 – 2.5 0.292 - - -
Follow up BMI groups (Kg/m 2 ) < 18.5 10/36 [27.8] 1.0      
≥ 18.5 47/196 [24.0] 0.8 0.4 – 1.8 0.627 - - -
Follow up CD4 groups (cells/uL) < 350 35/131 [26.7] 1.0      
≥ 350 12/70 [17.1] 0.6 0.3 – 1.2 0.120 - - -
MPR adherence ≥ 95% (Satisfactory) 34/181 [18.8] 1.0    1.0   
  <95% (Unsatisfactory) 18/43 [41.9] 3.1 1.5 – 6.3 0.002 3.0 1.5 – 6.5 0.003
  1. Baseline refers to indicators at ART initiation; Follow up refers to indicators at the time of sampling; *Likelihood Ratio Test p-value; BMI (Body Mass Index); WHO (World Health Organization); MPR (Medicine Possession Ratio). Missing data; Baseline WHO staging (n = 1 [0.4%]), Baseline BMI (n = 1 [0.4%]), Baseline CD4 count (n = 2 [0.9%]), CD4 count (n = 31 [13.4%]) and MPR adherence (n = 8 [3.5%]).