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Table 1 Distribution of characteristics among first-line antiretroviral experienced adults on care at a rural HIV clinic in coastal Kenya (N = 232)

From: HIV-1 virologic failure and acquired drug resistance among first-line antiretroviral experienced adults at a rural HIV clinic in coastal Kenya: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic Categories Frequency [column %]
   Cross-section 1 (n = 86) Cross-section 2 (n = 146) Total (n = 232)
Gender Male 16 [18.6] 38 [26.0] 54 [23.3]
Female 70 [81.4] 108 [74.0] 178 [76.7]
*Age (years) Median 36.5 39.3 38.5
[IQR] [31.4 – 44.4] [32.7 – 46.1] [32.2 – 44.8]
Age group (years) 15.0 – 34.9 33 [38.4] 47 [32.2] 80 [34.5]
≥ 35.0 53 [61.6] 99 [67.8] 152 [65.5]
Marital status Single 10 [11.6] 9 [6.2] 19 [8.2]
Married (monogamous/polygamous) 52 [60.5] 80 [54.8] 132 [56.9]
Separated/divorced/widowed 24 [27.9] 57 [39.0] 81 [34.9]
Religion Christian 64 [74.4] 88 [60.3] 152 [65.5]
Muslim 13 [15.1] 28 [19.2] 41 [17.7]
Others 9 [10.5] 30 [20.6] 39 [16.8]
Education status Primary schooling/less 68 [79.1] 119 [81.5] 187 [80.6]
Secondary/higher 18 [20.9] 27 [18.5] 45 [19.4]
*Distance (km) Median 7.8 7.8 7.8
[IQR] [2.2 – 21.0] [2.2 – 13.4] [2.2 – 15.7]
Group distance (km) < 10.0 50 [58.1] 98 [67.1] 148 [63.8]
≥ 10.0 36 [41.9] 48 [32.9] 84 [36.2]
Starting 1 st line regimen Zidovudine based 37 [43.0] 81 [55.5] 118 [50.9]
Stavudine based 49 [57.0] 65 [44.5] 114 [49.1]
*Baseline WHO staging I/II 41 [47.7] 90 [61.6] 131 [56.5]
III/IV 44 [51.2] 56 [38.4] 100 [43.1]
Missing 1 [0.0] 0 [0.0] 1 [0.4]
*Baseline BMI (Kg/m 2 ) Median 19.3 19.0 19.3
(IQR) [17.6 – 20.7] [17.3 – 21.1] [17.4 – 21.1]
Baseline BMI groups (Kg/m 2 ) < 18.5 32 [37.2] 63 [43.2] 95 [41.0]
≥ 18.5 53 [61.6] 83 [56.9] 136 [58.6]
Missing 1 [1.2] 0 [0.0] 1 [0.4]
*Baseline CD4 count (cells/uL) Median 124 126 124
(IQR) [61 – 197] [35–193] [40–196]
Baseline CD4 groups (cells/uL) < 100 33 [38.4] 63 [43.2] 96 [41.4]
≥ 100 51 [59.3] 83 [56.9] 134 [57.8]
Missing 2 [2.3] 0 [0.0] 2 [0.9]
*Duration on ART (months) Median 13.3 15.0 13.9
[IQR] [9.0 – 16.1] [10.8 – 20.3] [10.0 – 18.3]
Group duration on ART (months) <12.0 32 [37.2] 49 [33.6] 81 [34.9]
≥ 12.0 54 [62.8] 97 [66.4] 151 [65.1]
Drug substitution No 68 [79.1] 100 [68.5] 168 [72.4]
Yes 18 [20.9] 46 [31.5] 64 [27.6]
WHO staging Stage I/II 54 [62.8] 78 [53.4] 132 [56.9]
Stage III/IV 32 [37.2] 68 [46.6] 100 [43.1]
*BMI (Kg/m 2 ) Median 21.2 21.1 21.1
(IQR) [19.2 – 22.2] [19.4 – 24.5] [19.4 – 23.6]
BMI groups (Kg/m 2 ) < 18.5 12 [14.0] 24 [16.4] 36 [15.5]
≥ 18.5 74 [86.1] 122 [83.6] 196 [84.5]
*CD4 count (cells/uL) Median 282 288 286
(IQR) [205–419] [193–387] [199–388]
CD4 groups (cells/uL) < 350.0 49 [57.0] 82 [56.2] 131 [56.5]
≥ 350.1 29 [33.7] 41 [28.1] 70 [30.2]
Missing 8 [9.3] 23 [15.8] 31 [13.4]
MPR adherence ≥ 95% (Satisfactory) 59 [68.6] 122 [83.6] 181 [78.0]
< 95% (Unsatisfactory) 24 [27.9] 19 [13.0] 43 [18.5]
  Missing 3 [3.5] 5 [3.4] 8 [3.5]
  1. Baseline refers to indicators at ART initiation; Follow up refers to indicators at the time of sampling; *Median [IQR, Inter-quartile ranges] for continuous variables; BMI (Body Mass Index); WHO (World Health Organization); MPR (Medicine Possession Ratio); Zidovudine based (plus lamivudine/Nevirapine [n = 107] or lamivudine/efavirenz [n = 11]); stavudine based (plus lamivudine/Nevirapine [n = 111] or lamivudine/efavirenz [n = 3]).