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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the 89 children with a genotype

From: Drug resistance in children at virological failure in a rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, cohort

Characteristic Outcome
Gender, male, n (%) 53 (59.6)
At ART initiation
Age, years, median (IQR) 7 (3.7-9.6)
Number of children per age group n(%)  
0-3 years 17 (23)
4-9 years 37 (50)
10-15 years 20 (27)
Viral load, log10 copies/ml, median (IQR) 4.0 (3.7-4.7)
CD4+ cell count, cells/μl, median (IQR) 286 (112–560)
By Age category:  
0 - 2 yrs (n = 3) 817 (31–1564)
>2 – 5 yrs (n = 29) 469 (194–619)
>5 yrs (n = 38) 200 (69–363)
ART regimen, n (%)  
d4T/3TC/EFV 64 (71.9)
d4T/3TC/LPVr 12 (13.5)
ABC/3TC/EFV 8 (8.9)
ABC/3TC/LPVr 4 (4.5)
AZT/3TC/EFV 1 (1.1)
At genotyping
Age, years, median (IQR) 10.2 (7.7 – 12.9)
Number of children per age group n(%)  
0-3 years 4 (4.5)
4-9 years 38 (42.7)
10-15 years 47 (52.8)
Viral load prior to genotyping*, log10 copies/ml, median (IQR) 4.2 (3.8-4.8)
CD4+ cell count prior to genotyping*, cells/μl, 460 (228–769)
median (IQR)  
By Age category: 2339 (1621–2538)
0 - 2 yrs (n = 4 ) 685 (442–956)
2 – 5 yrs (n = 37) 295 (147–564)
>5 yrs (n = 47)  
ART regimen at time of genotyping, n (%)  
d4T/3TC/EFV 58 (65.2)
d4T/3TC/LPVr 8 (8.9)
ABC/3TC/EFV 14 (15.7)
ABC/3TC/LPVr 8 (8.9)
AZT/3TC/EFV 1 (1.1)
Duration of ART, years, median (IQR) 3.3 (2.5-4.4)
Duration of ART failure, years, median (IQR) 1.8 (0.8-2.4)
Time between last viral load and genotype, months, median (IQR) 3.1 (1.4-7.0)
History of ART substitution#, yes, n (%) 12 (13.5)
  1. Key:
  2. d4T, stavudine; 3TC, lamivudine; EFV, efavirenz; LPVr, lopinavir/ritonavir; ABC, abacavir; AZT, zidovudine; ART, antiretroviral therapy; IQR, interquartile range.
  3. *Last measurements recorded prior to date of genotype.
  4. Duration of antiretroviral failure was estimated from the date of the first viral load >1000 copies/ml to date of genotype, unless there was a viral load <50 copies/ml in-between, in which case the time was estimated from the next viral load >1,000 copies/ml. If there was no viral load ≤1,000 copies/ml then time was calculated from date of ART initiation.
  5. #Substitutions included changes of single drugs due to toxicity or guideline changes.